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Periodontal disease is a common oral diseases, is one of the main cause of adult tooth loss, also harm human teeth and body health main oral diseases.But in the past people mistakenly believe that only the elderly will be plagued by periodontal disease, in fact, from the age of five, periodontal disease began to "corrosion" our health.

The definition of periodontal disease

Periodontal disease (periodontal diseases) is to point to in tooth support organization (periodontal tissue) diseases, including only affects the gum tissue gum disease (gingival diseases) and spread deep periodontal tissue (the periodontal ligament, alveolar bone, cementum) of periodontitis (periodontitis) two kinds big.

Why have to periodontal disease

Periodontal disease is a multifactor disease, its etiology is divided into traditional local and systemic factors.Local factors of plaque (dental plaque) bacteria and their products is one of the main periodontal disease cause, is an initiating factor lead to periodontal disease.Mostly poor oral hygiene, the role of microorganisms, dental calculus, especially under the gum outranked plaque.Systemic factors and nutrition metabolic disorders, endocrine disorders, plant nerve dysfunction and so on.In addition, the stimulation of trauma, the bad repair body. It is also one of the cause.

Clinical manifestation of periodontal disease (symptoms)

Physical stimuli easy bleeding gums

. The diseased area gum hyperaemia oedema periodontitis can loose teeth and periodontal pocket in different degree

. X-ray visible of the alveolar bone absorption and different level of periodontitis gingivitis no alveolar bone absorption phenomenon

Clinical manifestations of

Gingivitis mainly for gum and gum nipples become pure brightness stippling disappear gum powder quality soft fragile inelastic gum out clinical easily bleeding from the local presence of teeth or dental calculus

. Periodontitis in addition to the performance of gingivitis and periodontal pocket formation of periodontal pocket inside can have pus overflow teeth loose X-ray visible different level alveolar bone absorption of different level

Periodontal disease prevention and nursing

As with caries of nursing, the key is to control and eliminate the plaque, by far the most effective method is to correct brushing your teeth every day, massage the gums, promote blood circulation, gums enhancement gum disease resistance of the organization.Pay attention to exercise the body, enhance immunity.

Remove local stimulus, cleaning teeth and shave their periodontal plaque and tartar, corrects bad repair body and correctional food embedded plug, basic can be cured.

Supplementary food rich in vitamin C, can adjust the nutrition of periodontal tissue, is beneficial to the recovery of periodontitis.

After the onset of periodontal disease should be active treatment, early curative effect is good, the lesion is very easy to stop, late curative effect is poorer, so that the loss of teeth.

The cause of periodontal disease


The cause of periodontal disease is more complex, the total is divided into both local and systemic factors.Local factors have very important role, general factors can affect the periodontal tissue response to local irritation, there is a close relationship between.

Local factors:

1. On the surface of the plaque is refers to the adhesion to tooth microbiota, cannot use mouthwash, such as water washing to remove.Has been recognized, plaque is the initiating factor for periodontal disease, is the main pathogenic factor of periodontal disease.

2. The plaque is sedimentary mineralization of plaque on the surface of the tooth.According to the nature of the sedimentary area and divided into plaque plaque and the gum on the gum under two kinds of plaque.Gum is located in the transparent plaque on tooth surface above, the naked eye can see directly.In tooth neck deposit more, particularly in major salivary gland duct openings relative place such as the buccal side of maxillary molar and the mandibular anterior teeth lingual more sedimentation.Under the gum is below the transparent, transparent bag or plaque, periodontal pocket inside the root of the surface to the naked eye can’t look straight into, must probe with a probe, in order to know the sedimentary area and volume.Under the gum on any dental plaque can be formed, but with more surface and the surface of the tongue.

Gum on the plaque is the main source of inorganic salts in the saliva of calcium, phosphorus and other mineral salts.Under the gum mainly gingival sulcus plaque fluid and provide mineral salt exudate.

Tartar from the harm of periodontal tissue, and the main is that it constitutes the plaque adhesion and sound environment for bacterial growth.Plaque itself prevents the maintenance of oral health, thus more accelerated the formation of plaque, the gum tissue formation.

3. When traumatic occlusal bite, if bite force is too large or abnormal direction, beyond the periodontal tissue are combined, cause occlusion of the periodontal tissue damage, called traumatic occlusion.Traumatic occlusal always early contact tooth occlusal including interference, bruxism, etc.

4. Other include food, bad repair, factors such as mouth breathing also prompted the periodontal tissue inflammation process.

Systemic factors:

The occurrence of periodontal disease, is the main local factors.Systemic factors belong to the promoting factor in the development of periodontal disease, systemic factors can reduce or change the periodontal tissue resistance to external stimulation, make it easy to sicken, and can promote the development of gingivitis and periodontitis.

Systemic factors include: endocrine disorders, such as hormones, adrenal cortical hormone, and thyroid hormone secretion of anomalies.Diet and nutrition can have a lack of vitamin C, vitamin D and calcium, phosphorus deficiency or imbalance, malnutrition and so on.Blood disease had close relations with periodontal tissue, gingival swelling is common in patients with leukemia, ulcers, bleeding, etc.Hemophilia can occur spontaneous bleeding gums, etc.Long-term use of certain medications such as phenytoin sodium can make gum in fibrous hyperplasia;Some types of periodontal disease, such as juvenile periodontitis patients tend to have a family history, and therefore consider to have genetic factors.In short, the cause of periodontal disease is more complex, in the treatment should not only pay attention to the elimination of partial factors, also want to consider the state of the whole body, in order to achieve better therapeutic effect.

Take a long time for the treatment of periodontal disease

Treatment of periodontal disease, it is necessary to first the status of the periodontal tissue and the extent of damage to some kind of understanding and evaluation, usually by full mouth root apex x-rays and periodontal probing pocket depth measurement to achieve, after the evaluation to develop a plan of treatment, often to the treatment of periodontal disease in three phase:

Early treatment:

Remove all dirty things in oral cavity as far as possible, including the patient’s oral hygiene clean completely, including a toothbrush and dental floss, etc., the correct use of cleaning tools.And then in the ultrasonic cleaning, periodontal pockets deep shaving and root of calculi, remove bad above compound content, occlusal interference, etc.

Operation period:

Serious affected part, especially periodontal pockets deeper down, periodontal flap operation, should be done in order to clear the stones and the diseased tissue completely.Periodontal surgery is a kind of local and safe operation, can be implemented in dental clinic.Under local anesthesia, the gum is slightly open, deep periodontal tissues of stones, meat thoroughly remove, if you have bone loss, can cooperate place "periodontal regeneration membrane" and "artificial bone" make the destruction of bone tissue regeneration, achieve the goal of positive reconstruction of periodontal tissue.

Maintenance phase:

Again after the above treatment, usually took three months to half a year’s time, spend so much time and effort on it, to maintain results is extremely important.In addition to the permanent continuously do oral cavity clean, should be instructed by the physician, on a regular basis, check to fully grasp the periodontal and your mouth.


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